Physical properties characterization

Analysis for solid materials

Our expertise and equipment allow us for several analysis on solid materials, for the characterization of their physical properties and reactivity. The results are usually preliminary for technological developments in view of material exploitation.
The analysis are comprehensive of: sample preparation, repeatability validation for experimental error calculation, results' interpretation and a final report.

Particulate matter analysis

Opacimeter for the count and for the particles size distribution of particles carried within a gas flow

Gas analysis

Electro-chemical sensors for quantification of O2, CO, H2, VOC, NOx, SOx, H2O, NH3

IR sensors for quantification of CO2

Standard GC (packed columns: MS5A, PPU) for quantification of non-condensable gaseous compounds and light hydrocarbons up to C6

Micro GC (capillary columns: MS5A, PPU) for fast quantification of non-condensable gaseous compounds and light hydrocarbons up to C6

Mass Spectrum, with direct access, for qualification and quantification of gaseous compounds up to 200 amu

FT-IR for fast identification and quantification of gas; range of measurements between 600 and 4000 cm-1, resolution of 0.25 cm-1, up to 20 spectra/s.


Temperature-Programmed Reduction and Oxidation give information about the capability of a sample to be oxidized or reduced, that is strictly linked to the catalytic activity.

Sample quantity: hundreds of milligrams

Porosity (ε and permeability (K) in granular beds and for filtering tissues

The pressure drop generated by a gaseous flow through a granular or a filtering tissue bed is measured and then used into the Ergun and Darcy equations to obtain ε and K.

Sample quantity: hundreds of grams

Intrinsic density of non porous solids

The measurements are carried out with Regnault Pycnometer

Sample quantity: grams

Apparent, tapped, dispersed, vibrated density of granular beds

The density of the granular bed is measured flowing freely (ISO 3923-1, ASTM B417, EN 23923-1), tapping, filtering or vibrating respectively, the granular material into a fixed volume.

Sample quantity: hundreds of grams

DSC for Cp calculation

A DSC analysis set in inert atmosphere, conducted in three steps (one analysis without any sample, one analysis with sapphyre, one analysis with desidered sample), is able to determine the specific heat capacity of the sample. Reference: standard ASTM E1269-11

Sample quantity: milligrams

DSC standard

The standard thermal analysis identifies the T of fusion, of glass transition, the entalpies of phase transitions and combustion in a range of T from RT to 600°C.

Sample quantity: milligrams

Macro TGA complete

Thermo-gravimetric measurement for samples up to 5 g; temperature, pressure and gas composition controlled.
Online analysis of the gaseous products (electrochemical sensors, GC, micro GC, GC-MS, MS, FTIR) and for particulate matter (opacimeter).

Sample quantity: grams

Proximate Analysis

The Proximate Analysis of a fuel gives the % of the sample that, during the thermal treatment, turns into gas phase (Volatile Matter, VM), and that stays in solid state (Fixed Carbon, FC, and inorganic material, Ashes).

The protocol and the reference standards follow:

Volatile Matter: 900°C for 7 minutes (Inert, no O2), EN 15402

Fixed Carbon: as difference

Ashes: 600°C for 2h (in Air), EN 15403

Sample quantity: tens of grams

Umidity content

This analysis gives the water quantity contained in the biomass. The result is expressed in % on the total weight. The measurement is thermos-gravimetric based and consists in the heating of the sample at 105°C, until the final weight stabilizes.

Sample quantity: grams

Our latest projects